Modified toolbox for optogenetics in the nonhuman primate.

Ji Dai, Ilker Ozden, Daniel I. Brooks, Fabien Wagner, Travis May, Naubahar S. Agha, Benjamin Brush, David Borton, Arto V. Nurmikko, David L. Sheinberg
Neurophoton. 2015-05-29; 2(3): 031202
DOI: 10.1117/1.NPh.2.3.031202

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1. Neurophotonics. 2015 Jul;2(3):031202. doi: 10.1117/1.NPh.2.3.031202. Epub 2015
May 29.

Modified toolbox for optogenetics in the nonhuman primate.

Dai J(1), Ozden I(2), Brooks DI(1), Wagner F(1), May T(2), Agha NS(2), Brush
B(2), Borton D(2), Nurmikko AV(3), Sheinberg DL(1).

Author information:
(1)Brown University , Department of Neuroscience, 185 Meeting Street, Box GL-N,
Providence, Rhode Island 02912, United States.
(2)Brown University , School of Engineering, 182 Hope Street, Box D, Providence,
Rhode Island 02912, United States.
(3)Brown University , School of Engineering, 182 Hope Street, Box D, Providence,
Rhode Island 02912, United States ; Brown University , Department of Physics, 182
Hope Street, Box D, Providence, Rhode Island 02912, United States.

Attracted by the appealing advantages of optogenetics, many nonhuman primate labs
are attempting to incorporate this technique in their experiments. Despite some
reported successes by a few groups, many still find it difficult to develop a
reliable way to transduce cells in the monkey brain and subsequently monitor
light-induced neuronal activity. Here, we describe a methodology that we have
developed and successfully deployed on a regular basis with multiple monkeys. All
devices and accessories are easy to obtain and results using these have been
proven to be highly replicable. We developed the “in-chair” viral injection
system and used tapered and thinner fibers for optical stimulation, which
significantly improved the efficacy and reduced tissue damage. With these
methods, we have successfully transduced cells in multiple monkeys in both deep
and shallow cortical areas. We could reliably obtain neural modulation for months
after injection, and no light-induced artifacts were observed during recordings.
Further experiments using these methods have shown that optogenetic stimulation
can be used to bias spatial attention in a visual choice discrimination task in a
way comparable to electrical microstimulation, which demonstrates the potential
use of our methods in both fundamental research and clinical applications.

DOI: 10.1117/1.NPh.2.3.031202
PMCID: PMC4478720
PMID: 26158011


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