Exosomes, an Unmasked Culprit in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

Federico N. Soria, Olatz Pampliega, Mathieu Bourdenx, Wassilios G. Meissner, Erwan Bezard, Benjamin Dehay
Front. Neurosci.. 2017-01-31; 11:
DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2017.00026

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1. Front Neurosci. 2017 Jan 31;11:26. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2017.00026. eCollection

Exosomes, an Unmasked Culprit in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

Soria FN(1), Pampliega O(1), Bourdenx M(1), Meissner WG(1), Bezard E(1), Dehay

Author information:
(1)Institut des Maladies Neurodégénératives, UMR 5293, Université de
BordeauxBordeaux, France; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS),
Institut des Maladies Neurodégénératives, UMR 5293Bordeaux, France.

Exosomes are extracellular nanovesicles (30-100 nm) generated from endosomal
membranes and known to be released by all cell lineages of the Central Nervous
System (CNS). They constitute important vesicles for the secretion and transport
of multilevel information, including signaling, toxic, and regulatory molecules.
Initially thought to have a function merely in waste disposal, the involvement of
exosomes in neuronal development, maintenance, and regeneration through its
paracrine and endocrine signaling functions has drawn particular attention in
recent years. These vesicles, being involved in the clearance and cell-to-cell
spreading of toxic molecules, have been naturally implicated in aging, and in
several neurodegenerative diseases associated with pathological conversion of
proteins, as well as in the transport of other disease-associated molecules, such
as nucleic acids or pro-inflammatory cytokines. Our understanding of such unique
form of communication may provide not only answers about (patho)physiological
processes in the brain, but can also offer means to exploit these vesicles as
vehicles for the delivery of biologically relevant molecules or as tools to
monitor brain diseases in a non-invasive way. A promising field in expansion, the
study of exosomes and related extracellular vesicles has just commenced to unveil
their potential as therapeutic tools for brain disorders as well as biomarkers of
disease state.

DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2017.00026
PMCID: PMC5281572
PMID: 28197068

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