Depressive-like behavioral profiles in captive-bred single- and socially-housed rhesus and cynomolgus macaques: a species comparison.
Front. Behav. Neurosci.. 2014-01-01; 8:
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1. Front Behav Neurosci. 2014 Feb 19;8:47. doi: 10.3389/fnbeh.2014.00047.
Depressive-like behavioral profiles in captive-bred single- and socially-housed
rhesus and cynomolgus macaques: a species comparison.
Camus SM(1), Rochais C(2), Blois-Heulin C(2), Li Q(3), Hausberger M(2), Bezard
(1)Institut des Maladies Neurodégénératives, Université de Bordeaux, UMR 5293
(2)Ethologie Animale et Humaine, Université de Rennes 1, CNRS, UMR 6552 Rennes,
(3)Motac Neuroscience Ltd. Manchester, UK ; Institute of Lab Animal Sciences,
China Academy of Medical Sciences Beijing, China.
(4)Institut des Maladies Neurodégénératives, Université de Bordeaux, UMR 5293
Bordeaux, France ; Motac Neuroscience Ltd. Manchester, UK ; Institute of Lab
Animal Sciences, China Academy of Medical Sciences Beijing, China.
BACKGROUND: To unravel the causes of major depressive disorder (MDD), the third
leading cause of disease burden around the world, ethological animal models have
recently been proposed. Our previous studies highlighted a depressive-like
profile among single- and socially-housed farm-bred cynomolgus macaques. Although
phylogenetically close, cynomolgus and rhesus macaques, the two most commonly
used macaque species in biomedical research, differ on several levels such as
patterns of aggression, reconciliation, temperament, or dominance styles. The
question of whether one captive macaque species was more vulnerable than another
in the development of a pathological profile reminiscent of MDD symptoms was
METHODS: Behavioral data (including body postures, orientations, gaze directions,
inter-individual distances, and locations in the cage) were collected in farming
conditions. Using an unbiased validated ethological scan-sampling method,
followed by multiple correspondence and hierarchical clustering analyses, 40
single- and 35 socially-housed rhesus macaques were assessed. Independently, for
each housing condition, inter-species comparisons were made with previously
acquired data on farm-bred cynomolgus monkeys.
RESULTS: Consistent with our previous studies, we found depressive-like
characteristics (e.g., inactivity, low level of investigation and maintenance,
long time spent inactive while facing the wall) among single- and socially-housed
rhesus macaques. Species-specificities were reported in non-depressive time
budgets and in the prevalence of the pathological profiles.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that rhesus may be more vulnerable to developing
a despair-like state than cynomolgus macaques, both in single- and in
social-housing conditions. Therefore, rhesus macaques are more suitable for use
as a “spontaneous” model of depressive disorders.