Maternal n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid dietary supply modulates microglia lipid content in the offspring
Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids. 2018-06-01; 133: 1-7
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The brain is highly enriched in long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs)
that are esterified into phospholipids, the major components of cell membranes.
They accumulate during the perinatal period when the brain is rapidly developing.
Hence, the levels of LC-PUFAs in the brains of the offspring greatly depend on
maternal dietary intake. Perinatal n-3 PUFA consumption has been suggested to
modulate the activity of microglial cells, the brain’s innate immune cells which
contribute to the shaping of neuronal network during development. However, the
impact of maternal n-3 PUFA intake on microglial lipid composition in the
offspring has never been studied. To investigate the impact of maternal dietary
n-3 PUFA supply on microglia lipid composition, pregnant mice were fed with n-3
PUFA deficient, n-3 PUFA balanced or n-3 PUFA supplemented diets during gestation
and lactation. At weaning, microglia were isolated from the pup’s brains to
analyze their fatty acid composition and phospholipid class levels. We here
report that post-natal microglial cells displayed a distinctive lipid profile as
they contained high levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), more EPA than
docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and large amount of phosphatidylinositol (PI) /
phosphatidylserine (PS). Maternal n-3 PUFA supply increased DHA levels and
decreased n-6 docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) levels whereas the PI/PS membrane
content was inversely correlated to the quantity of PUFAs in the diet. These
results raise the possibility of modulating microglial lipid profile and their
subsequent activity in the developing brain.
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