Bioactive lipids as new class of microglial modulators: When nutrition meets neuroimunology

A. Nadjar, Q. Leyrolle, C. Joffre, S. Laye
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry. 2017-10-01; 79: 19-26
DOI: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2016.07.004

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Within the central nervous system the traditional role of microglia has been in
brain infection and disease, phagocytosing debris and secreting factors to modify
disease progression. More recently, microglia have been found to be important for
normal brain development, circuit refinement, and synaptic plasticity in ways
that were previously unsuspected. Hence, the brain innate immune system appears
to be key in all situations, ranging from physiology to pathology. This unique
feature of microglia is established by the wide array of receptors it is equipped
with to sense molecular patterns. This includes receptors to most if not all
neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and purines. We here review novel, yet
extensive literature on a new class of microglia modulators, namely bioactive
fatty acids. These lipids are issued from metabolism of nutrients and can cross
the blood brain barrier to reach the CNS. They appear to be direct modulators of
microglial activity, triggering/inhibiting inflammatory processes or
enhancing/inhibiting the ability of these cells to respond to hazardous agents.

Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Auteurs Bordeaux Neurocampus