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Cajal ! Glial cells in health and disease


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  • CAJAL course 2016: "Glial cells in health and disease"

    28 nov. 2016

    le top de l' encadrement... 30 enseignants pour 2...

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  • G. Marsicano, G. Benard et al. dans Nature

    23 nov. 2016

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  • Tous les thésards en ligne...

    20 déc. 2016

    les soutenances 2016 Bordeaux Neurocampus....

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  • Séminaire impromptu - Martin Oheim

    15 déc. 2016 à 11:30 - Nouveau Bâtiment Neurocampus

    acquisition of super-resolved 50 µm by 50 µm image...

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  • Laurent Groc dans Nature avec ExtraBrain !

    28 nov. 2016

    une collaboration financé par le LabEx BRAIN....

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PUBLICATIONS

A brain-spine interface alleviating gait deficits after spinal cord injury in primates.A brain-spine interface alleviating gait deficits after spinal cord injury in primates.
Spinal cord injury disrupts the communication between the brain and the spinal circuits that orchestrate movement. To bypass the lesion, brain-computer interfaces have directly linked cortical activity to electrical stimulation of muscles, and have thus restored grasping abilities after hand paralysis. Theoretically, this strategy could also restore control over leg muscle activity for walking. However, replicating the complex sequence of individual muscle activation patterns underlying natural and adaptive locomotor movements poses formidable conceptual and technological challenges. Recently, it was shown in rats that epidural electrical stimulation of the lumbar spinal cord can reproduce the natural activation of synergistic muscle groups producing locomotion. Here we interface leg motor cortex activity with epidural electrical stimulation protocols to establish a brain-spine interface that alleviated gait deficits after a spinal cord injury in non-human primates. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were implanted with an intracortical microelectrode array in the leg area of the motor cortex and with a spinal cord stimulation system composed of a spatially selective epidural implant and a pulse generator with real-time triggering capabilities. We designed and implemented wireless control systems that linked online neural decoding of extension and flexion motor states with stimulation protocols promoting these movements. These systems allowed the monkeys to behave freely without any restrictions or constraining tethered electronics. After validation of the brain-spine interface in intact (uninjured) monkeys, we performed a unilateral corticospinal tract lesion at the thoracic level. As early as six days post-injury and without prior training of the monkeys, the brain-spine interface restored weight-bearing locomotion of the paralysed leg on a treadmill and overground. The implantable components integrated in the brain-spine interface have all been approved for investigational applications in similar human research, suggesting a practical translational pathway for proof-of-concept studies in people with spinal cord injury.
Capogrosso M, Milekovic T, Borton D, Wagner F, Moraud EM, Mignardot JB, Buse N, Gandar J, Barraud Q, Xing D, Rey E, Duis S, Jianzhong Y, Ko WK, Li Q, Detemple P, Denison T, Micera S, Bezard E, Bloch J, Courtine G.
Nature. 2016 Nov 9

A cannabinoid link between mitochondria and memory.A cannabinoid link between mitochondria and memory.
Cellular activity in the brain depends on the high energetic support provided by mitochondria, the cell organelles which use energy sources to generate ATP. Acute cannabinoid intoxication induces amnesia in humans and animals, and the activation of type-1 cannabinoid receptors present at brain mitochondria membranes (mtCB1) can directly alter mitochondrial energetic activity. Although the pathological impact of chronic mitochondrial dysfunctions in the brain is well established, the involvement of acute modulation of mitochondrial activity in high brain functions, including learning and memory, is unknown. Here, we show that acute cannabinoid-induced memory impairment in mice requires activation of hippocampal mtCB1 receptors. Genetic exclusion of CB1 receptors from hippocampal mitochondria prevents cannabinoid-induced reduction of mitochondrial mobility, synaptic transmission and memory formation. mtCB1 receptors signal through intra-mitochondrial Gαi protein activation and consequent inhibition of soluble-adenylyl cyclase (sAC). The resulting inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent phosphorylation of specific subunits of the mitochondrial electron transport system eventually leads to decreased cellular respiration. Hippocampal inhibition of sAC activity or manipulation of intra-mitochondrial PKA signalling or phosphorylation of the Complex I subunit NDUFS2 inhibit bioenergetic and amnesic effects of cannabinoids. Thus, the G protein-coupled mtCB1 receptors regulate memory processes via modulation of mitochondrial energy metabolism. By directly linking mitochondrial activity to memory formation, these data reveal that bioenergetic processes are primary acute regulators of cognitive functions.
Hebert-Chatelain E, Desprez T, Serrat R, Bellocchio L, Soria-Gomez E, Busquets-Garcia A, Zottola AC, Delamarre A, Cannich A, Vincent P, Varilh M, Robin LM, Terral G, García-Fernández MD, Colavita M, Mazier W, Drago F, Puente N, Reguero L, Elezgarai I, Dupuy JW, Cota D, Lopez-Rodriguez ML, Barreda-Gómez G, Massa F, Grandes P, Bénard G, Marsicano G.
Nature. 2016 Nov 9

Inflammatory, endocrine and metabolic correlates of fatigue in obese children.Inflammatory, endocrine and metabolic correlates of fatigue in obese children.
Alterations in endocrine functions and low-grade systemic inflammation represent fundamental characteristics of obesity. These biological systems have been repeatedly linked to fatigue symptoms. The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between fatigue dimensions and metabolic/inflammatory markers in a sample of non-diabetic obese children. The possibility that inflammation-induced alterations in tryptophan metabolism relates to specific dimensions of fatigue was also investigated in a subsample of patients. The study was conducted in 41 obese children, median aged 12 [9-15] years, recruited in a pediatric tertiary center. Three dimensions of fatigue (e.g., general fatigue, sleep/rest, cognitive fatigue) were assessed using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Multidimentional Fatigue Scale. In addition, a principal component analysis was performed to identify fatigue dimensions that were specific to the population under study. This analysis extracted five relevant dimensions corresponding respectively to concentration, energy, self-perceived cognitive efficiency, sleep/rest and motivation/anhedonia. Blood samples were collected for the measurement of inflammatory and metabolic markers, including high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), insulin, uricemia and glycaemia. Tryptophan, kynurenine and neopterin levels were also determined in a subsample of 17 patients. In the whole population under study, cognitive fatigue and reduced motivation/anhedonia were associated with BMI, independently of sex and age. The dimension of reduced motivation/anhedonia was associated with insulin resistance and inflammatory biomarkers. The association with insulin resistance persisted when the extent of fat mass (BMI-SDS) was taken into account. No association was found between tryptophan metabolism and specific dimensions of fatigue, but kynurenine and the kynurenine/tryptophan ratio correlated with insulin and HOMA-IR. These data indicate that insulin resistance in non diabetic obese children is associated with both cognitive fatigue and reduced motivation/anhedonia and with alterations in tryptophan metabolism. Further investigations are needed to determine whether inflammation-induced alterations in tryptophan metabolism is directly or indirectly implicated in insulin resistance and related fatigue.
Barat P, Meiffred MC, Brossaud J, Fuchs D, Corcuff JB, Thibault H, Capuron L.
Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2016 Sep 8

Molecular determinants for the strictly compartmentalized expression of kainate receptors in CA3 pyramidal cells.Molecular determinants for the strictly compartmentalized expression of kainate receptors in CA3 pyramidal cells.
Distinct subtypes of ionotropic glutamate receptors can segregate to specific synaptic inputs in a given neuron. Using functional mapping by focal glutamate uncaging in CA3 pyramidal cells (PCs), we observe that kainate receptors (KARs) are strictly confined to the postsynaptic elements of mossy fibre (mf) synapses and excluded from other glutamatergic inputs and from extrasynaptic compartments. By molecular replacement in organotypic slices from GluK2 knockout mice, we show that the faithful rescue of KAR segregation at mf-CA3 synapses critically depends on the amount of GluK2a cDNA transfected and on a sequence in the GluK2a C-terminal domain responsible for interaction with N-cadherin. Targeted deletion of N-cadherin in CA3 PCs greatly reduces KAR content in thorny excrescences and KAR-EPSCs at mf-CA3 synapses. Hence, multiple mechanisms combine to confine KARs at mf-CA3 synapses, including a stringent control of the amount of GluK2 subunit in CA3 PCs and the recruitment/stabilization of KARs by N-cadherins.
Fièvre S, Carta M, Chamma I, Labrousse V, Thoumine O, Mulle C.
Nat Commun. 2016 Sep 27

Neuroinflammation in Autism: Plausible Role of Maternal Inflammation, Dietary Omega 3, and Microbiota.Neuroinflammation in Autism: Plausible Role of Maternal Inflammation, Dietary Omega 3, and Microbiota.
Several genetic causes of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been identified. However, more recent work has highlighted that certain environmental exposures early in life may also account for some cases of autism. Environmental insults during pregnancy, such as infection or malnutrition, seem to dramatically impact brain development. Maternal viral or bacterial infections have been characterized as disruptors of brain shaping, even if their underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Poor nutritional diversity, as well as nutrient deficiency, is strongly associated with neurodevelopmental disorders in children. For instance, imbalanced levels of essential fatty acids, and especially polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), are observed in patients with ASD and other neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g., attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and schizophrenia). Interestingly, PUFAs, and specifically n-3 PUFAs, are powerful immunomodulators that exert anti-inflammatory properties. These prenatal dietary and immunologic factors not only impact the fetal brain, but also affect the microbiota. Recent work suggests that the microbiota could be the missing link between environmental insults in prenatal life and future neurodevelopmental disorders. As both nutrition and inflammation can massively affect the microbiota, we discuss here how understanding the crosstalk between these three actors could provide a promising framework to better elucidate ASD etiology.
Madore C, Leyrolle Q, Lacabanne C, Benmamar-Badel A, Joffre C, Nadjar A, Layé S.
Neural Plast. 2016. Review.

PGE2-EP3 signaling pathway impairs hippocampal presynaptic long-term plasticity in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.PGE2-EP3 signaling pathway impairs hippocampal presynaptic long-term plasticity in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by early cognitive deficits linked to synaptic dysfunction and loss. Considerable evidence suggests that neuroinflammation contributes to AD. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a key neuroinflammatory molecule, modulates hippocampal synaptic transmission and plasticity. We investigated the effect of PGE2 on synaptic transmission and presynaptic plasticity at synapses between mossy fibers from the dentate gyrus and CA3 pyramidal cells (Mf-CA3 synapse). These synapses are involved in mnemonic processes and consequently may be of relevance for AD. We provide evidence that although PGE2 had no effect both on either basal transmission or short-term plasticity, it strongly impaired presynaptic Mf-CA3 long-term potentiation (LTP) by acting on PGE2 receptor 3 (EP3) receptors. During aging, hippocampal levels of PGE2 markedly increased in the APP/PS1 mouse model of AD and impaired specifically presynaptic LTP via a PGE2-EP3 signaling pathway. In summary, the building up of PGE2 during the progression of AD leads to specific impairment of hippocampal presynaptic plasticity and highlights EP3 receptors as a potential target to alleviate cognitive deficits in AD.
Maingret V, Barthet G, Deforges S, Jiang N, Mulle C, Amédée T.
Neurobiol Aging. 2016 Oct 17;50:13-24

Brèves...

« Quand dépression rime avec inflammation »

6 déc. 2016

« Traquer les traces d'une éventuelle inflammation de bas grade chez les dépressifs venant consulter un psychiatre ne constitue pas encore un examen d...► Lire la suite

Autisme et fronde des psychiatres...

2 déc. 2016

fronde des psychiatres sur un texte discuté à l'assemblée nationale le 8 dec....interdiction du packing etc...► Lire la suite

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Recherchons ! Bordeaux Neurocampus: 
en ligne le 19 sept 2016 ....Recherchons: Chef de projet du centre  d’excellence sur  les maladies neurodégénératives CHU de Bordeaux Hôpital Pellegrin - Institut des Maladies Neurodégénératives
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 A Senior Research Fellow position funded by the Marie Sklodowska-Curie Actions COFUND scheme will be available in the second half of 2017-early 2018 in the Laboratory of Prof. Riccardo Brambilla....
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Cherche Location Appartement, chercheur récemment recruté,  nous cherchons à louer un appartement de 3 ou 4 pièces à Bordeaux à partir du mois de janvier (ou février) 2017. Nous serons à Bordeaux la semaine du 5 décembre pour visiter des appartements....
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