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La saga neurosciences...


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PUBLICATIONS

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in the Brain: Physiological Mechanisms and Relevance to Pharmacology.Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in the Brain: Physiological Mechanisms and Relevance to Pharmacology.
Classically, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were largely thought to be relatively inert structural components of brain, largely important for the formation of cellular membranes. Over the past 10 years, a host of bioactive lipid mediators that are enzymatically derived from arachidonic acid, the main n-6 PUFA, and docosahexaenoic acid, the main n-3 PUFA in the brain, known to regulate peripheral immune function, have been detected in the brain and shown to regulate microglia activation. Recent advances have focused on how PUFA regulate the molecular signaling of microglia, especially in the context of neuroinflammation and behavior. Several active drugs regulate brain lipid signaling and provide proof of concept for targeting the brain. Because brain lipid metabolism relies on a complex integration of diet, peripheral metabolism, including the liver and blood, which supply the brain with PUFAs that can be altered by genetics, sex, and aging, there are many pathways that can be disrupted, leading to altered brain lipid homeostasis. Brain lipid signaling pathways are altered in neurologic disorders and may be viable targets for the development of novel therapeutics. In this study, we discuss in particular how n-3 PUFAs and their metabolites regulate microglia phenotype and function to exert their anti-inflammatory and proresolving activities in the brain.
Layé S, Nadjar A, Joffre C, Bazinet RP.
Pharmacol Rev.

How Hyperarousal and Sleep Reactivity Are Represented in Different Adult Age Groups: Results from a Large Cohort Study on Insomnia.How Hyperarousal and Sleep Reactivity Are Represented in Different Adult Age Groups: Results from a Large Cohort Study on Insomnia.
Hyperarousal is a 24-h state of elevated cognitive and physiological activation, and is a core feature of insomnia. The extent to which sleep quality is affected by stressful events-so-called sleep reactivity-is a vulnerability factor for developing insomnia. Given the increasing prevalence of insomnia with age, we aimed to investigate how hyperarousal and sleep reactivity were related to insomnia severity in different adult age groups. Data were derived from a large cohort study investigating the natural history of insomnia in a population-based sample (n = 1693). Baseline data of the Arousal Predisposition Scale (APS) and Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test (FIRST) were examined across age and sleep/insomnia subgroups: 25-35 (n = 448), 35-45 (n = 528), and 45-55 year olds (n = 717); good sleepers (n = 931), individuals with insomnia symptoms (n = 450), and individuals with an insomnia syndrome (n = 312). Results from factorial analyses of variance (ANOVA) showed that APS scores decreased with increasing age, but increased with more severe sleep problems. FIRST scores were not significantly different across age groups, but showed the same strong increase as a function of sleep problem severity. The findings indicate that though arousal predisposition and sleep reactivity increase with more severe sleep problems, only arousal decreases with age. How arousing events affect an individual during daytime thus decreases with age, but how this arousal disrupts sleep is equivalent across different adult age groups. The main implication of these findings is that treatment of insomnia could be adapted for different age groups and take into consideration vulnerability factors such as hyperarousal and stress reactivity.
Altena E, Chen IY, Daviaux Y, Ivers H, Philip P, Morin CM.
Brain Sci. 2017 Apr 14

Inducing a long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus is sufficient to produce rapid antidepressant-like effects.Inducing a long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus is sufficient to produce rapid antidepressant-like effects.
Recent hypotheses propose that one prerequisite to obtain a rapid antidepressant (AD) effect would reside in processes of synaptic reinforcement occurring within the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus independently from neurogenesis. However, to date no relationship has been established between an increased DG synaptic plasticity, and rapid AD-like action. To the best of our knowledge, this study shows for the first time that inducing a long-term potentiation (LTP) within the DG by stimulating the perforant pathway (PP) is sufficient to induce such effects. Thus, Sprague-Dawley rats having undergone a successful LTP displayed a significant reduction of immobility when passed acutely 3 days thereafter in the forced swimming test (FST). Further, in a longitudinal paradigm using the pseudo-depressed Wistar-Kyoto rat strain, LTP elicited a decrease of FST immobility after only 2 days, whereas the AD desipramine was not effective before 16 days. In both models, the influence of LTP was transient, as it was no more observed after 8-9 days. No effects were observed on the locomotor activity or on anxiety-related behavior. Theta-burst stimulation of a brain region anatomically adjacent to the PP remained ineffective in the FST. Immunoreactivity of DG cells for phosphorylated histone H3 and doublecortin were not modified three days after LTP, indicating a lack of effect on both cell proliferation and neurogenesis. Finally, depleting brain serotonin contents reduced the success rate of LTP but did not affect its subsequent AD-like effects. These results confirm the 'plastic DG' theory of rapid AD efficacy. Beyond, they point out stimulations of the entorhinal cortex, from which the PP originates, as putative new approaches in AD research.
Kanzari A, Bourcier-Lucas C, Freyssin A, Abrous DN, Haddjeri N, Lucas G.
Mol Psychiatry. 2017 May 9

Optimized labeling of membrane proteins for applications to super-resolution imaging in confined cellular environments using monomeric streptavidin.Optimized labeling of membrane proteins for applications to super-resolution imaging in confined cellular environments using monomeric streptavidin.
Recent progress in super-resolution imaging (SRI) has created a strong need to improve protein labeling with probes of small size that minimize the target-to-label distance, increase labeling density, and efficiently penetrate thick biological tissues. This protocol describes a method for labeling genetically modified proteins incorporating a small biotin acceptor peptide with a 3-nm fluorescent probe, monomeric streptavidin. We show how to express, purify, and conjugate the probe to organic dyes with different fluorescent properties, and how to label selectively biotinylated membrane proteins for SRI techniques (point accumulation in nanoscale topography (PAINT), stimulated emission depletion (STED), stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM)). This method is complementary to the previously described anti-GFP-nanobody/SNAP-tag strategies, with the main advantage being that it requires only a short 15-amino-acid tag, and can thus be used with proteins resistant to fusion with large tags and for multicolor imaging. The protocol requires standard molecular biology/biochemistry equipment, making it easily accessible for laboratories with only basic skills in cell biology and biochemistry. The production/purification/conjugation steps take ∼5 d, and labeling takes a few minutes to an hour.
Chamma I, Rossier O, Giannone G, Thoumine O, Sainlos M.
Nat Protoc. 2017 Apr

What is an affordance? 40 years laterWhat is an affordance? 40 years later
About 40 years ago, James J. Gibson coined the term "affordance" to describe the action possibilities offered to an animal by the environment with reference to the animal's action capabilities. Since then, this notion has acquired a multitude of meanings, generating confusion in the literature. Here, we offer a clear operationalization of the concept of affordances and related concepts in the field of tool use. Our operationalization is organized around the distinction between the physical (what is objectively observable) and neurocognitive (what is subjectively experienced) levels. This leads us to propose that motor control (dorso-dorsal system), mechanical knowledge (ventro-dorsal system) and function knowledge (ventral system) could be neurocognitive systems respectively involved in the perception of affordances, the understanding of mechanical actions and the storage of contextual relationships (three action-system model; 3AS). We end by turning to two key issues that can be addressed within 3AS. These issues concern the link between affordances and tool incorporation, and the constraints posed by affordances for tool use.
Osiurak F, Rossetti Y, Badets A.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2017 Apr 19. Review

Brèves...

Retrouvez les dernières Newsletter

12 janv. 2018

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Une nouvelle piste pour expliquer Alzheimer

6 févr. 2018

« Notre hypothèse, c’est que la quantité de synapses est toujours suffisante aux stades avancés de la maladie quel que soit le nombre de neurones res...► Lire la suite

Apport technologique et dérive éthique ?

5 févr. 2018

.. lorsque les tumeurs se répandent dans le cerveau, formant des métastases, les nanoparticules ont un intérêt réel ► Lire la suite

Alain Lemasson, décodeur du langage animal

31 janv. 2018

l'émergence du langage.. comment la vie sociale a servi de moteur évolutif à la communication vocale animal et au langage humain...► Lire la suite

EMPLOIS - JOB OPPORTUNITIES +

Positions postdoc ouvert
1) Post-doctoral position/The group of F. Gambino (CNRS
/ University of Bordeaux / France) is seeking a highly motivated, talented and self-driven neuroscientist to explore the neural computations performed by the dorsal prefrontal cortex of mice during decision-making. 
 
2) A post-doctoral position (2 years) is available at NUTRINEURO lab (UMR INRA 1286, Bordeaux, France) to study the mechanisms underlying the link between diabetes and depression. The post-doc project is a part of an international collaborative project ...
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PhD recrutement, ingénieurs, chef d'équipe , etc ... 
Nous recrutons un chef de projet pour le programme Ecole Universitaire de Recherche Neuro. Le chef de projet de l'UBGSNeuro doit: - Conduire la mise en œuvre du projet, selon les décisions de l'instance de pilotage.- Gérer et aider au pilotage du projet, Niveau du recrutement : A IE ( INM 405 à 510 selon expérience, à partir de 2000€ brut mensuel)...
Recherchons Assistant ingénieur / Ingénieur d’étude . Prise de poste : 01/03/2018 Durée du contrat : 10 à 22 mois. Lieu : Neurocentre Magendie, Bordeaux Contact : veronique.deroche@inserm.fr. Domaine : Psychopathologie expérimentale Mission
Dr. Monique VALLEE recrute , AI ou Ingénieur ( Neurocentre Magendie) Missions : • Assurer les expériences de comportement, de pharmacologie et de pharmacocinétique chez la souris :  
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Recherche d'emploi / Employment sought
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Stages /
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Job opportunities outside Bordeaux...
  
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Vidéos

Bordeaux Neurocampus

Entretiens avec Valentin Nagerl , Jérôme Baufreton, Erwan Bezard, Daniel Choquet....


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Aquitaine Science Transfert


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Joël Swendsen


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