Two nitridergic peptides are encoded by the gene capability in Drosophila melanogaster.
American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. 2002-05-01; 282(5): R1297-R1307
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A Drosophila gene ( capability, capa) at 99D on chromosome 3R potentially encodes three neuropeptides: GANMGLYAFPRV-amide (capa-1), ASGLVAFPRV-amide (capa-2), and TGPSASSGLWGPRL-amide (capa-3). Capa-1 and capa-2 are related to the lepidopteran hormone cardioacceleratory peptide 2b, while capa-3 is a novel member of the pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide/diapause hormone/pyrokinin family. By immunocytochemistry, we identified four pairs of neuroendocrine cells likely to release the capa peptides into the hemolymph: one pair in the subesophageal ganglion and the other three in the abdominal neuromeres. In the Malpighian (renal) tubule, capa-1 and capa-2 increase fluid secretion rates, stimulate nitric oxide production, and elevate intracellular Ca2+ and cGMP in principal cells. Capa-stimulated fluid secretion, but not intracellular Ca2+ concentration rise, is inhibited by the guanylate cyclase inhibitor methylene blue. The actions of capa-1 and capa-2 are not synergistic, implying that both act on the same pathways in tubules. The capa gene is thus the first to be shown to encode neuropeptides that act on renal fluid production through nitric oxide.