The globus pallidus pars interna in goal-oriented and routine behaviors: Resolving a long-standing paradox.
Mov Disord.. 2016-02-22; 31(8): 1146-1154
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1. Mov Disord. 2016 Aug;31(8):1146-54. doi: 10.1002/mds.26542. Epub 2016 Feb 22.
The globus pallidus pars interna in goal-oriented and routine behaviors:
Resolving a long-standing paradox.
Piron C(1)(2)(3), Kase D(1)(2)(3), Topalidou M(1)(2)(4)(5)(6), Goillandeau
M(1)(2), Orignac H(1)(2), N’Guyen TH(1)(2), Rougier N(1)(2)(4)(5)(6), Boraud
(1)University of Bordeaux, UMR 5293, IMN, Bordeaux, France.
(2)CNRS, UMR 5293, IMN, Bordeaux, France.
(3)CNRS, French-Israeli Neuroscience Lab, Bordeaux, France.
(4)INRIA, Bordeaux Sud-Ouest, Talence, France.
(5)University of Bordeaux, UMR 5800, LABRI, IPB, Talence, France.
(6)CNRS, UMR 5800, LABRI, IPB, Talence, France.
(7)CHU de Bordeaux, IMN Clinique, Bordeaux, France.
Mov Disord. 2016 Aug;31(8):1120-1.
BACKGROUND: There is an apparent contradiction between experimental data showing
that the basal ganglia are involved in goal-oriented and routine behaviors and
clinical observations. Lesion or disruption by deep brain stimulation of the
globus pallidus interna has been used for various therapeutic purposes ranging
from the improvement of dystonia to the treatment of Tourette’s syndrome. None of
these approaches has reported any severe impairment in goal-oriented or automatic
METHOD: To solve this conundrum, we trained 2 monkeys to perform a variant of a
2-armed bandit-task (with different reward contingencies). In the latter we
alternated blocks of trials with choices between familiar rewarded targets that
elicit routine behavior and blocks with novel pairs of targets that require an
intentional learning process.
RESULTS: Bilateral inactivation of the globus pallidus interna, by injection of
muscimol, prevents animals from learning new contingencies while performance
remains intact, although slower for the familiar stimuli. We replicate in silico
these data by adding lateral competition and Hebbian learning in the cortical
layer of the theoretical model of the cortex-basal ganglia loop that provided the
framework of our experimental approach.
CONCLUSION: The basal ganglia play a critical role in the deliberative process
that underlies learning but are not necessary for the expression of routine
movements. Our approach predicts that after pallidotomy or during stimulation,
patients should have difficulty with complex decision-making processes or
learning new goal-oriented behaviors. © 2016 Movement Disorder Society.
© 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
PMID: 26900137 [Indexed for MEDLINE]