Precision Preventive Medicine of Relapse in Smoking Cessation: Can MRI Inform the Search of Intermediate Phenotypes?
Biology. 2021-12-27; 11(1): 35
Chronic tobacco smoking remains a major health problem worldwide. Numerous smokers wish to quit but most fail, even if they are helped. The possibility of identifying neuro-biomarkers in smokers at high risk of relapse could be of incredible progress toward personalized prevention therapy. Our aim is to provide a scoping review of this research topic in the field of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and to review the studies that investigated if MRI defined markers predicted smoking cessation treatment outcome (abstainers versus relapsers). Based on the available literature, a meta-analysis could not be conducted. We thus provide an overview of the results obtained and take stock of methodological issues that will need to be addressed to pave the way toward precision medicine. Based on the most consistent findings, we discuss the pivotal role of the insula in light of the most recent neurocognitive models of addiction.