Polyunsaturated fatty acids, neuroinflammation and well being

Sophie Layé
Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids (PLEFA). 2010-04-01; 82(4-6): 295-303
DOI: 10.1016/j.plefa.2010.02.006

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1. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2010 Apr-Jun;82(4-6):295-303. doi:
10.1016/j.plefa.2010.02.006. Epub 2010 Mar 15.

Polyunsaturated fatty acids, neuroinflammation and well being.

Layé S(1).

Author information:
(1)Psychoneuroimmunology, Nutrition and Genetic (PsyNuGen), UMR INRA 1286, CNRS
5226, University Bordeaux 2, Bordeaux, France.

The innate immune system of the brain is principally composed of microglial cells
and astrocytes, which, once activated, protect neurons against insults
(infectious agents, lesions, etc.). Activated glial cells produce inflammatory
cytokines that act specifically through receptors expressed by the brain. The
functional consequences of brain cytokine action (also called neuroinflammation)
are alterations in cognition, mood and behaviour, a hallmark of altered
well-being. In addition, proinflammatory cytokines play a key role in depression
and neurodegenerative diseases linked to aging. Polyunsaturated fatty acids
(PUFA) are essential nutrients and essential components of neuronal and glial
cell membranes. PUFA from the diet regulate both prostaglandin and
proinflammatory cytokine production. n-3 fatty acids are anti-inflammatory while
n-6 fatty acids are precursors of prostaglandins. Inappropriate amounts of
dietary n-6 and n-3 fatty acids could lead to neuroinflammation because of their
abundance in the brain and reduced well-being. Depending on which PUFA are
present in the diet, neuroinflammation will, therefore, be kept at a minimum or
exacerbated. This could explain the protective role of n-3 fatty acids in
neurodegenerative diseases linked to aging.

Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.plefa.2010.02.006
PMID: 20227866 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

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