Neuroinflammatory imaging biomarkers: relevance to multiple sclerosis and its therapy.
Neurotherapeutics. 2012-11-07; 10(1): 111-123
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1. Neurotherapeutics. 2013 Jan;10(1):111-23. doi: 10.1007/s13311-012-0155-4.
Neuroinflammatory imaging biomarkers: relevance to multiple sclerosis and its
Tourdias T(1), Dousset V.
(1)INSERM Unit 1049 Neuroinflammation, Imagerie et Thérapie de la Sclérose en
Plaques, Université de Bordeaux, 146 rue Léo Saignat, Bordeaux, F-33076, France.
Magnetic resonance imaging is an established tool in the management of multiple
sclerosis (MS). Loss of blood brain barrier integrity assessed by gadolinium (Gd)
enhancement is the current standard marker of MS activity. To explore the complex
cascade of the inflammatory events, other magnetic resonance imaging, but also
positron emission tomographic markers reviewed in this article are being
developed to address active neuroinflammation with increased sensitivity and
specificity. Alternative magnetic resonance contrast agents, positron emission
tomographic tracers and imaging techniques could be more sensitive than Gd to
early blood brain barrier alteration, and they could assess the inflammatory cell
recruitment and/or the associated edema accumulation. These markers of active
neuroinflammation, although some of them are limited to experimental studies,
could find great relevance to complete Gd information and thereby increase our
understanding of acute lesion pathophysiology and its noninvasive follow-up,
especially to monitor treatment efficacy. Furthermore, such accurate markers of
inflammation combined with those of neurodegeneration hold promise to provide a
more complete picture of MS, which will be of great benefit for future
PMID: 23132327 [Indexed for MEDLINE]