Neurohormones and neuropeptides encoded by the genome of Lottia gigantea, with reference to other mollusks and insects

Jan A. Veenstra
General and Comparative Endocrinology. 2010-05-01; 167(1): 86-103
DOI: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2010.02.010

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Veenstra JA(1).

Author information:
(1)Université de Bordeaux, CNRS, CNIC UMR 5228, 33400 Talence, France.

The Lottia gigantea genome was prospected for the presence of genes coding
neuropeptides and neurohormones. Four genes code insulin-related peptides: two
genes code molluscan insulin-like growth hormones, one gene an insulin very
similar to vertebrate insulin, and the fourth a peptide related to drosophila
insulin-like peptide 7. Four other genes encode the cysteine-knot proteins
GPA2/GPB5 and bursicon/parabursicon. Another 37 genes code for precursors of the
following neuropeptides: achatin, APGWamide, allatostatin C, allatotropin,
buccalin (perhaps an allatostatin A homolog), cerebrin, CCAP, conopressin,
elevenin (the predicted neuropeptide made by abdominal neuron 11 in Aplysia), egg
laying hormone (two genes), enterin, feeding circuit activating neuropeptide
(FCAP), FFamide, FMRFamide, GGNG, a GnRH-like peptide, the newly discovered
LASGLVamide, LFRFamide, LFRYamide, LRNFVamide, luqin, lymnokinin, myomodulin (two
genes), the newly discovered NKY, NPY, pedal peptide (three genes), PKYMDT,
pleurin, PXFVamide, small cardioactive peptides, tachykinins (two genes) and
WWamide (an allatostatin B homolog). One gene was found to encode FWISamide,
while about 20 closely related genes were found to encode WWFamide. These small
neuropeptides appear homologous to the NdWFamide, which contains d-Trp; these
genes are similar to the Aplysia gene encoding NWFamide. Some of these peptides
had not been previously identified from mollusks, such as the predicted hormones
similar to Drosophila and vertebrate insulins, bursicon, the putative proctolin
homolog PKYMDT and allatostatin C. Together with neuropeptides which are likely
homologs of other insect neuropeptides, such as cerebrin and WWamide, this shows
that despite significant differences the molluscan and arthropod neuropeptidomes
are more similar than generally recognized.

Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


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