N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and the Resolution of Neuroinflammation
Joffre C(1)(2), Rey C(1)(2)(3), Layé S(1)(2).
(1)INRA, Nutrition et Neurobiologie Intégrée, UMR 1286, Bordeaux, France.
(2)Université de Bordeaux 2, Bordeaux, France.
(3)ITERG, Nutrition Health and Lipid Biochemistry Department, Canéjan, France.
In the past few decades, as a result of their anti-inflammatory properties, n-3
long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs), have gained greater
importance in the regulation of inflammation, especially in the central nervous
system (in this case known as neuroinflammation). If sustained, neuroinflammation
is a common denominator of neurological disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease
and major depression, and of aging. Hence, limiting neuroinflammation is a real
strategy for neuroinflammatory disease therapy and treatment. Recent data show
that n-3 LC-PUFAs exert anti-inflammatory properties in part through the
synthesis of specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) such as resolvins,
maresins and protectins. These SPMs are crucially involved in the resolution of
inflammation. They could be good candidates to resolve brain inflammation and to
contribute to neuroprotective functions and could lead to novel therapeutics for
brain inflammatory diseases. This review presents an overview 1) of brain n-3
LC-PUFAs as precursors of SPMs with an emphasis on the effect of n-3 PUFAs on
neuroinflammation, 2) of the formation and action of SPMs in the brain and their
biological roles, and the possible regulation of their synthesis by environmental
factors such as inflammation and nutrition and, in particular, PUFA consumption.
Copyright © 2019 Joffre, Rey and Layé.