In silico cloning of genes encoding neuropeptides, neurohormones and their putative G-protein coupled receptors in a spider mite
Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 2012-04-01; 42(4): 277-295
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Veenstra JA(1), Rombauts S, Grbić M.
(1)Université Bordeaux, Avenue des Facultés, INCIA UMR 5287 CNRS, 33405 Talence
The genome of the spider mite was prospected for the presence of genes coding
neuropeptides, neurohormones and their putative G-protein coupled receptors.
Fifty one candidate genes were found to encode neuropeptides or neurohormones.
These include all known insect neuropeptides and neurohormones, with the
exception of sulfakinin, corazonin, neuroparsin and PTTH. True orthologs of
adipokinetic hormone (AKH) were neither found, but there are three genes encoding
peptides similar in structure to both AKH and the AKH-corazonin-related peptide.
We were also unable to identify the precursors for pigment dispersing factor
(PDF) or the recently discovered trissin. However, the spider mite probably does
have such genes, as we found their putative receptors. A novel arthropod
neuropeptide gene was identified that shows similarity to previously described
molluscan neuropeptide genes and was called EFLamide. A total of 65 putative
neuropeptide GPCR genes were also identified, of these 58 belong to the A-family
and 7 to the B-family. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 50 of them are closely
related to insect GPCRs, which allowed the identification of their putative
ligand in 39 cases with varying degrees of certainty. Other spider mite GPCRs
however have no identifiable orthologs in the genomes of the four holometabolous
insect species best analyzed. Whereas some of the latter have orthologs in
hemimetabolous insect species, crustaceans or ticks, for others such arthropod
homologs are currently unknown.
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