Implication of 5-HT in the Dysregulation of Chloride Homeostasis in Prenatal Spinal Motoneurons from the G93A Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
IJMS. 2020-02-07; 21(3): 1107
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive motor neuron degeneration and muscle paralysis. The early presymptomatic onset of abnormal processes is indicative of cumulative defects that ultimately lead to a late manifestation of clinical symptoms. It remains of paramount importance to identify the primary defects that underlie this condition and to determine how these deficits lead to a cycle of deterioration. We recently demonstrated that prenatal E17.5 lumbar spinal motoneurons (MNs) from SOD1G93A mice exhibit a KCC2-related alteration in chloride homeostasis, i.e., the EGABAAR is more depolarized than in WT littermates. Here, using immunohistochemistry, we found that the SOD1G93A lumbar spinal cord is less enriched with 5-HT descending fibres than the WT lumbar spinal cord. High-performance liquid chromatography confirmed the lower level of the monoamine 5-HT in the SOD1G93A spinal cord compared to the WT spinal cord. Using ex vivo perforated patch-clamp recordings of lumbar MNs coupled with pharmacology, we demonstrated that 5-HT strongly hyperpolarizes the EGABAAR by interacting with KCC2. Therefore, the deregulation of the interplay between 5-HT and KCC2 may explain the alteration in chloride homeostasis detected in prenatal SOD1G93A MNs. In conclusion, 5-HT and KCC2 are two likely key factors in the presymptomatic phase of ALS, particular in familial ALS involving the SOD1G93A mutation.