GABA(A) Receptor and Glycine Receptor Activation by Paracrine/Autocrine Release of Endogenous Agonists: More Than a Simple Communication Pathway
Mol Neurobiol. 2011-05-06; 44(1): 28-52
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1. Mol Neurobiol. 2011 Aug;44(1):28-52. doi: 10.1007/s12035-011-8185-1. Epub 2011
GABA(A) receptor and glycine receptor activation by paracrine/autocrine release
of endogenous agonists: more than a simple communication pathway.
Le-Corronc H(1), Rigo JM, Branchereau P, Legendre P.
(1)Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, U952, Centre
National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR 7224, Université Pierre et Marie
Curie, 9 quai Saint Bernard, Paris, Ile de France, France.
It is a common and widely accepted assumption that glycine and GABA are the main
inhibitory transmitters in the central nervous system (CNS). But, in the past
20 years, several studies have clearly demonstrated that these amino acids can
also be excitatory in the immature central nervous system. In addition, it is now
established that both GABA receptors (GABARs) and glycine receptors (GlyRs) can
be located extrasynaptically and can be activated by paracrine release of
endogenous agonists, such as GABA, glycine, and taurine. Recently, non-synaptic
release of GABA, glycine, and taurine gained further attention with increasing
evidence suggesting a developmental role of these neurotransmitters in neuronal
network formation before and during synaptogenesis. This review summarizes recent
knowledge about the non-synaptic activation of GABA(A)Rs and GlyRs, both in
developing and adult CNS. We first present studies that reveal the functional
specialization of both non-synaptic GABA(A)Rs and GlyRs and we discuss the
neuronal versus non-neuronal origin of the paracrine release of GABA(A)R and GlyR
agonists. We then discuss the proposed non-synaptic release mechanisms and/or
pathways for GABA, glycine, and taurine. Finally, we summarize recent data about
the various roles of non-synaptic GABAergic and glycinergic systems during the
development of neuronal networks and in the adult.
PMID: 21547557 [Indexed for MEDLINE]