Drosophila insulin-like peptide 1 (DILP1) promotes organismal growth and catabolic energy metabolism during the non-feeding pupal stage
. 2018-09-19; :
The insulin/IGF-signaling pathway is central in control of nutrient-dependent growth during development, and in adult physiology and longevity. Eight insulin-like peptides (DILP1-8) have been identified in Drosophila and several of these are known to regulate growth, metabolism, reproduction, stress responses and lifespan. However, the functional role of DILP1 is far from understood. Previous work has shown that dilp1/DILP1 is transiently expressed mainly during the non-feeding pupal stage and the first days of adult life. Here we show that mutation of dilp1 diminishes organismal weight during pupal development, whereas overexpression increases it, similar to dilp6 manipulations. No growth effects of dilp1 or dilp6 manipulations were detected during larval development. We next show that dilp1 and dilp6 increase metabolic rate in the late pupa and promote lipids as the primary source of catabolic energy. This lipid mobilization in the pupa is not correlated with transcriptional changes of adipokinetic hormone. The effects of dilp1 manipulations carry over to the adult fly. In newly eclosed flies, survival during starvation is strongly diminished in dilp1 mutants, but not in dilp2 and dilp1-dilp2 double mutants, whereas in older flies only double mutants display reduced starvation resistance. In conclusion, dilp1 and dilp6 promote growth of adult tissues during the non-feeding pupal stage, likely by utilization of stored lipids. This results in larger newly-eclosed flies with reduced stores of pupal-derived nutrients and diminished starvation tolerance and fecundity.