Continuous high-frequency stimulation in freely moving rats: Development of an implantable microstimulation system

Daniel Harnack, Wassilios Meissner, Raik Paulat, Hannes Hilgenfeld, Wolf-Dieter Müller, Christine Winter, Rudolf Morgenstern, Andreas Kupsch
Journal of Neuroscience Methods. 2008-01-01; 167(2): 278-291
DOI: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2007.08.019

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1. J Neurosci Methods. 2008 Jan 30;167(2):278-91. Epub 2007 Aug 31.

Continuous high-frequency stimulation in freely moving rats: development of an
implantable microstimulation system.

Harnack D(1), Meissner W, Paulat R, Hilgenfeld H, Müller WD, Winter C,
Morgenstern R, Kupsch A.

Author information:
(1)Department of Neurology, Campus Virchow, Berlin Germany.

High-frequency stimulation (HFS) of basal ganglia and thalamic nuclei is an
established treatment for various movement disorders and has recently been
extended to other neuro-psychiatric conditions. Numerous experimental studies in
small laboratory animals provided important insights in the mode of action of
HFS. However, the interpretation of the results is often limited by the use of
short-term HFS, while patients receive continuous stimulation for many years. One
reason is the lack of an established model for the application of long-term HFS
in small animals. Therefore, we thought to develop an implantable
microstimulation system for small laboratory animals and to establish a protocol
for long-term HFS by defining non-damaging stimulus parameters with respect to
brain integrity. For this purpose, we designed a miniaturized,
microcontroller-based, and programmable microstimulator that allows the reliable
application of continuous HFS for up to 5 weeks. Chronic HFS (total stimulation
time: 3 weeks) of the subthalamic nucleus with up to 100 microA (5.2 nC/phase)
through monopolar electrodes comprising activated iridium did not induce
significant tissue damage as assessed by various histological techniques
(Nissl’s, hematoxylin and eosin, Klüver-Barrera, van Gieson’s staining, NeuN and
GFAP-immunoreactivity). In conclusion, chronic HFS with an implantable stimulator
can be successfully applied in small animals.

DOI: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2007.08.019
PMID: 17942159 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

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