Variability as a characteristic of immature motor systems: an electromyographic study of swimming in the newborn rat.
Behavioural Brain Research. 1990-11-01; 40(3): 215-225
Swimming behaviour was studied in neonate rats by carrying out electromyographic recordings. The study showed that the early swimming pattern was characterized by highly instable temporal parameters. A decrease was found to occur with age in the variability of the instantaneous period in each leg and in that of the antiphase pattern. Moreover, a dissociation occurred during development between the foreleg and the backleg activity. While patterns involving the forelegs always remained extremely instable, a considerable improvement was found to occur with time in the hindlimb activity.