Validation of Horne and Ostberg morningness-eveningness questionnaire in a middle-aged population of French workers.
J Biol Rhythms. 2004-02-01; 19(1): 76-86
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1. J Biol Rhythms. 2004 Feb;19(1):76-86.
Validation of Horne and Ostberg morningness-eveningness questionnaire in a
middle-aged population of French workers.
Taillard J(1), Philip P, Chastang JF, Bioulac B.
(1)Clinique du sommeil, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Bordeaux cedex, France.
As suggested by the authors, the Horne and Ostberg morning/evening questionnaire
(MEQ) has never been adapted to evaluate a nonstudent population. The purpose of
this study was to validate this MEQ in a sample of middle-aged workers by
modifying only the cutoffs. It was administered in 566 non-shift-workers aged
51.2 to 3.2 years who presented no sleep disorders. According to the Home and
Ostberg classification, the sample consisted of 62.1% morning type, 36.6% neither
type, and 2.2% evening type. Multiple correspondence analysis, which determines
the principal components, was performed on all MEQ items. Then an ascending
hierarchical classification was applied to determine 3 clusters from these
principal components. On the basis of these 3 clusters, new cutoffs were
determined: evening types were considered as scoring under 53 and morning types
above 64, thus giving 28.1% morning type, 51.7% neither type, and 20.2% evening
type. As an external validation, eveningness was associated with later bedtime
and waking-up time (more pronounced at the weekend), greater need for sleep,
larger daily sleep debt, greater morning sleepiness, and ease of returning to
sleep in the early morning. A positive correlation between age and morningness
was again found. This study confirms that « owls » are not rare in a middle-aged
sample. We conclude that this adapted MEQ could be useful when investigating
age-related changes in sleep.
PMID: 14964706 [Indexed for MEDLINE]