The enpp4 ectonucleotidase regulates kidney patterning signalling networks in Xenopus embryos
Preprint bioRxiv. 2021-03-05; :
The enpp ectonucleotidases regulate lipidic and purinergic signalling pathways by controlling the extracellular concentrations of purines and bioactive lipids. Although both pathways are key regulators of kidney physiology and linked to human renal pathologies, their roles during nephrogenesis remain poorly understood. We previously showed that the pronephros was a major site of enpp expression and now demonstrate an unsuspected role for the conserved vertebrate enpp4 protein during kidney formation inXenopus.Enpp4 over-expression results in ectopic renal tissues and, on rare occasion, complete mini-duplication of the entire kidney. Enpp4 is required and sufficient for expression of the pronephric markers and regulates the expression of RA, Notch and Wnt pathway members. Enpp4 is a membrane protein that binds, without hydrolyzing, phosphatidylserine and its effects are mediated by the receptor s1pr5, although not via the generation of S1P. Finally, we propose a novel and surprising non-catalytic mechanism by which lipidic signalling regulates nephrogenesis.