Role of neuroinflammation in the emotional and cognitive alterations displayed by animal models of obesity

Nathalie Castanon, Giamal Luheshi, Sophie Layé
Front. Neurosci.. 2015-07-03; 9:
DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2015.00229

Lire sur PubMed

1. Front Neurosci. 2015 Jul 3;9:229. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2015.00229. eCollection

Role of neuroinflammation in the emotional and cognitive alterations displayed by
animal models of obesity.

Castanon N(1), Luheshi G(2), Layé S(1).

Author information:
(1)Nutrition and Integrative Neurobiology, INRA, UMR 1286, Université de Bordeaux
Bordeaux, France.
(2)Department of Psychiatry, Douglas Mental Health University Institute, McGill
University Montreal, Canada.

Obesity is associated with a high prevalence of mood disorders and cognitive
dysfunctions in addition to being a significant risk factor for important health
complications such as cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Identifying
the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these health issues is a major
public health challenge. Based on recent findings, from studies conducted on
animal models of obesity, it has been proposed that inflammatory processes may
participate in both the peripheral and brain disorders associated with the
obesity condition including the development of emotional and cognitive
alterations. This is supported by the fact that obesity is characterized by
peripheral low-grade inflammation, originating from increased adipose tissue mass
and/or dysbiosis (changes in gut microbiota environment), both of which
contribute to increased susceptibility to immune-mediated diseases. In this
review, we provide converging evidence showing that obesity is associated with
exacerbated neuroinflammation leading to dysfunction in vulnerable brain regions
associated with mood regulation, learning, and memory such as the hippocampus.
These findings give new insights to the pathophysiological mechanisms
contributing to the development of brain disorders in the context of obesity and
provide valuable data for introducing new therapeutic strategies for the
treatment of neuropsychiatric complications often reported in obese patients.

DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2015.00229
PMCID: PMC4490252
PMID: 26190966

Auteurs Bordeaux Neurocampus