Régénération postlésionnelle des cellules sensorielles vestibulaires : bilan et espoir.
Med Sci (Paris). 2000-01-01; 16(10): 1073
In mammals, the destruction of mature hair cells (HCs) of the inner ear produces balance disorders and irreversible deafness. Since both avian and mammalian HCs were believed to be produced prior to birth, HC regeneration was not thought to occur. However, during the last decade, research has indicated that vestibular HCs can reappear after lesions of the neurosensory epithelia, whereas cochlear HCs do not regenerate. Repair of the neurosensory epithelium is associated with division of epithelial supporting cells. In vitro, this proliferation is stimulated by growth factors acting on tyrosine kinase receptors, but the effect of each growth factor varies depending on the maturation stage and on the species. New HCs may arise either from differentiation of proliferating cells or from transdifferentiation of differentiated supporting cells. The differentiation process can affect two subsets of HCs (type 1 and type 2 HC) which differ in their regenerating potential, since one can become physiologically mature, while the other will display immature physiological features.