(Peri)vascular production and action of pro-inflammatory cytokines in brain pathology.
Clin. Sci.. 2007-01-01; 112(1): 1-25
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1. Clin Sci (Lond). 2007 Jan;112(1):1-25.
(Peri)vascular production and action of pro-inflammatory cytokines in brain
Konsman JP(1), Drukarch B, Van Dam AM.
(1)Laboratory of Integrative Neurobiology, CNRS FRE 2723/INRA UR 1244/University
Bordeaux2, Institut François Magendie, Bordeaux, France.
In response to tissue injury or infection, the peripheral tissue macrophage
induces an inflammatory response through the release of IL-1beta
(interleukin-1beta) and TNFalpha (tumour necrosis factor alpha). These cytokines
stimulate macrophages and endothelial cells to express chemokines and adhesion
molecules that attract leucocytes into the peripheral site of injury or
infection. The aims of the present review are to (i) discuss the relevance of
brain (peri)vascular cells and compartments to bacterial meningitis,
HIV-1-associated dementia, multiple sclerosis, ischaemic and traumatic brain
injury, and Alzheimer’s disease, and (ii) to provide an overview of the
production and action of pro-inflammatory cytokines by (peri)vascular cells in
these pathologies of the CNS (central nervous system). The brain (peri)vascular
compartments are highly relevant to pathologies affecting the CNS, as infections
are almost exclusively blood-borne. Insults disrupt blood and energy flow to
neurons, and active brain-to-blood transport mechanisms, which are the bottleneck
in the clearance of unwanted molecules from the brain. Perivascular macrophages
are the most reactive cell type and produce IL-1beta and TNFalpha after infection
or injury to the CNS. The main cellular target for IL-1beta and TNFalpha produced
in the brain (peri)vascular compartment is the endothelium, where these cytokines
induce the expression of adhesion molecules and promote leucocyte infiltration.
Whether this and other effects of IL-1 and TNF in the brain (peri)vascular
compartments are detrimental or beneficial in neuropathology remains to be shown
and requires a clear understanding of the role of these cytokines in both
damaging and repair processes in the CNS.
PMID: 17132137 [Indexed for MEDLINE]