Pattern of intake and drug craving predict the development of cocaine addiction-like behavior in rats.
Biological Psychiatry. 2009-05-01; 65(10): 863-868
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1. Biol Psychiatry. 2009 May 15;65(10):863-8. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2008.05.031.
Epub 2008 Jul 21.
Pattern of intake and drug craving predict the development of cocaine
addiction-like behavior in rats.
Belin D(1), Balado E, Piazza PV, Deroche-Gamonet V.
(1)CRI U862, Physiopathologie de l’addiction, Institut François Magendie,
Bordeaux Cedex 33077, France.
BACKGROUND: Clinical observations suggest that cocaine addiction often emerges
with new patterns of use. Whether these changes are a cause of addiction or its
consequence is unknown. We investigated whether the development of an
addiction-like behavior in the rat is associated with the pattern of cocaine
intake and with cocaine craving, a major feature of cocaine addiction.
METHODS: To determine whether changes in the pattern of cocaine use and enhanced
craving precede or parallel the onset of addiction, we used a rat addiction model
that incorporates core features of human addiction. For this purpose, the pattern
of inter-infusion intervals (a measure of pattern of cocaine intake), sensitivity
to cocaine-induced reinstatement (a measure of cocaine craving), and
addiction-like behaviour were assessed over several months of intravenous cocaine
RESULTS: We found that, even at early stages of cocaine self-administration, both
the pattern of cocaine intake and the intensity of drug-induced reinstatement
predict the severity of cocaine use, measured after 75 days of
CONCLUSIONS: Our results identify key predictors of cocaine addiction-intensified
pattern of drug use and high drug-induced craving-that may help in the
identification of subjects at risk for subsequent development of severe cocaine
PMID: 18639867 [Indexed for MEDLINE]