Nutrition for the eye: Different susceptibility of the retina and the lacrimal gland to dietary omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid incorporation
Ophthalmic Res. 2009-01-01; 41(4): 216-224
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1. Ophthalmic Res. 2009;41(4):216-24. doi: 10.1159/000217726. Epub 2009 May 15.
Nutrition for the eye: different susceptibility of the retina and the lacrimal
gland to dietary omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid incorporation.
Schnebelen C(1), Viau S, Grégoire S, Joffre C, Creuzot-Garcher CP, Bron AM,
Bretillon L, Acar N.
(1)UMR1129 FLAVIC, Eye and Nutrition Research Group, INRA, ENESAD, University of
Burgundy, Dijon, France.
The purpose of this study was to compare the susceptibility of the retina and the
exorbital lacrimal gland to dietary supplies of long-chain omega-3 (omega3) and
omega-6 (omega6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs). Male Wistar rats were
fed a 5% lipid diet containing: (1) 10% eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 7%
docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), or (2) 10% gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), or (3) 10%
EPA, 7% DHA and 10% GLA or (4) a balanced diet deprived of EPA, DHA and GLA for 3
months. Lipids were extracted from plasma phospholipids, retina and exorbital
lacrimal gland, and fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography.
Dietary supplementation with EPA and DHA increased omega3 PUFA levels in plasma
phospholipids as well as in the retina and the exorbital lacrimal gland. By
contrast, GLA supplementation favored omega6 PUFA incorporation, and particularly
the incorporation of the end-chain omega6 product, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA),
into all tissues. Supplementation with EPA, DHA and GLA increased the levels of
DHA, EPA and dihomo-GLA (dGLA), whereas arachidonic acid (AA) was unchanged and
DPA decreased in the retina and the lacrimal gland. The ability of both tissues
to incorporate PUFAs from blood was evaluated. The results showed that the retina
was more selective than the lacrimal gland for EPA. In spite of the different
susceptibility of the retina and the lacrimal gland to dietary PUFAs, these
results suggest that the concomitant use of dietary omega3 and omega6 PUFAs may
be useful in modulating inflammation in both tissues.
Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
PMID: 19451735 [Indexed for MEDLINE]