Not all smokers appear to seek nicotine for the same reasons: implications for preclinical research in nicotine dependence.
Addiction Biology. 2018-02-26; :
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Not all smokers appear to seek nicotine for the same reasons: implications for
preclinical research in nicotine dependence.
Garcia-Rivas V(1)(2), Deroche-Gamonet V(1)(2).
(1)Université de Bordeaux, France.
(2)INSERM U1215, Psychobiology of Drug Addiction, NeuroCentre Magendie, France.
Tobacco use leads to 6 million deaths every year due to severe long-lasting
diseases. The main component of tobacco, nicotine, is recognized as one of the
most addictive drugs, making smoking cessation difficult, even when 70 percent of
smokers wish to do so. Clinical and preclinical studies have demonstrated
consistently that nicotine seeking is a complex behavior involving various
psychopharmacological mechanisms. Evidence supports that the population of
smokers is heterogeneous, particularly as regards the breadth of motives that
determine the urge to smoke. Here, we review converging psychological, genetic
and neurobiological data from clinical and preclinical studies supporting that
the mechanisms controlling nicotine seeking may vary from individual to
individual. It appears timely that basic neuroscience integrates this
heterogeneity to refine our understanding of the neurobiology of nicotine
seeking, as tremendous progress has been made in modeling the various
psychopharmacological mechanisms driving nicotine seeking in rodents. For a
better understanding of the mechanisms that drive nicotine seeking, we emphasize
the need for individual-based research strategies in which nicotine seeking, and
eventually treatment efficacy, are determined while taking into account
individual variations in the mechanisms of nicotine seeking.
© 2018 Society for the Study of Addiction.