[Manipulation in the exercise of psychiatric interviews.]

G. Fond, J.-A. Micoulaud-Franchi, A. Macgregor, D. Ducasse
L'Encéphale. 2014-06-01; 40(3): 203-207
DOI: 10.1016/j.encep.2013.04.005

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1. Encephale. 2014 Jun;40(3):203-7. doi: 10.1016/j.encep.2013.04.005. Epub 2013 Jun

[Manipulation in the exercise of psychiatric interviews].

[Article in French]

Fond G(1), Micoulaud-Franchi JA(2), Macgregor A(3), Ducasse D(3).

Author information:
(1)Inserm U955, Éq. psychiatrie génétique, Fondation FondaMental (Fondation de
coopération scientifique en santé mentale), pôle de psychiatrie du groupe des
hôpitaux universitaires H.-Mondor, hôpital A.-Chevenier, université Paris
Est-Créteil, 40, rue de Mesly, 94010 Créteil, France; Inserm 1061, service
universitaire de psychiatrie, université Montpellier 1, CHU, 34000 Montpellier,
France. Electronic address: .
(2)Unité de neurophysiologie, psychophysiologie et neurophénomenologie (UNPN),
Solaris, pôle de psychiatrie universitaire, hôpital Sainte-Marguerite, 270,
boulevard de Sainte-Marguerite, 13009 Marseille, France; UMR CNRS 7291,
laboratoire de neurosciences cognitives (LNC), 31 Aix-Marseille université, site
St-Charles, 3, place Victor-Hugo, 13331 Marseille cedex 3, France.
(3)Inserm 1061, service universitaire de psychiatrie, université Montpellier 1,
CHU, 34000 Montpellier, France.

INTRODUCTION: The term « manipulation » is defined as « getting someone to behave
otherwise than he spontaneously would ». Unlike cognitive therapies, it does not
involve cognitive functioning and may increase psychotherapies’ efficiency.
METHOD: In the absence of data in the scientific literature (Medline and Web of
Science), we propose a synthesis of theoretical data from social psychology with
a reflection on its applications in the daily practice of psychiatry.
RESULTS: Firstly we present auto-manipulation: the « chilling effect » is the fact
that people tend to keep to a decision and to duplicate it, even if it does not
work. The commitment of the patient, i.e., the degree to which he/she identifies
with his/her act, will be even stronger if the patient’s sense of freedom is
high. The rationalization process is the ability for individuals to revisit their
beliefs after being forced to issue a behavior (that he/she did not adhere to) to
justify it a posteriori. In the second part, we present techniques for
hetero-manipulation. Priming is to ask about a low effort to « initiate » the
behavior. The lure technique is to hide convenience or invent fictitious benefits
of a product, but is not ethical. The labeling technique is to assign an
individual to a positive value regardless of his or her behavior, which increases
the probability of emission of positive behaviors. The touch technique, whatever
the cultural context, encourages a patient to have more confidence in his/her
therapist and to make them friendly towards the person involved by creating a
positive mood, reduces stress in patients before surgery, and improve the
academic performance of students.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: We propose reflections on the application of these
concepts in daily practice in the psychiatric interview. These techniques seem
fundamental in improving therapeutic alliance and the likelihood of good
compliance in our patients, and should be known to all practitioners.

Copyright © 2013 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights

DOI: 10.1016/j.encep.2013.04.005
PMID: 23810754 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

Auteurs Bordeaux Neurocampus