Glial Regulation of Neuronal Function: From Synapse to Systems Physiology

J. G. Tasker, S. H. R. Oliet, J. S. Bains, C. H. Brown, J. E. Stern
Journal of Neuroendocrinology. 2012-03-26; 24(4): 566-576
DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2826.2011.02259.x

Lire sur PubMed

1. J Neuroendocrinol. 2012 Apr;24(4):566-76. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2826.2011.02259.x.

Glial regulation of neuronal function: from synapse to systems physiology.

Tasker JG(1), Oliet SH, Bains JS, Brown CH, Stern JE.

Author information:
(1)Neurobiology Division, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Tulane
University, New Orleans, LA, USA.

Comment in
J Neuroendocrinol. 2012 Apr;24(4):527.

Classically, glia have been regarded as non-excitable cells that provide
nourishment and physical scaffolding for neurones. However, it is now generally
accepted that glia are active participants in brain function that can modulate
neuronal communication via several mechanisms. Investigations of anatomical
plasticity in the magnocellular neuroendocrine system of the hypothalamic
paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei led the way in the development of much of
our understanding of glial regulation of neuronal activity. In this review, we
provide an overview of glial regulation of magnocellular neurone activity from a
historical perspective of the development of our knowledge of the morphological
changes that are evident in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei. We also
focus on recent data from the authors’ laboratories presented at the 9th World
Congress on Neurohypophysial Hormones that have contributed to our understanding
of the multiple mechanisms by which glia modulate the activity of neurones,
including: gliotransmitter modulation of synaptic transmission; trans-synaptic
modulation by glial neurotransmitter transporter regulation of neurotransmitter
spillover; and glial neurotransmitter transporter modulation of excitability by
regulation of ambient neurotransmitter levels and their action on extrasynaptic
receptors. The magnocellular neuroendocrine system secretes oxytocin and
vasopressin from the posterior pituitary gland to control birth, lactation and
body fluid balance, and we finally speculate as to whether glial regulation of
individual magnocellular neurones might co-ordinate population activity to
respond appropriately to altered physiological circumstances.

© 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neuroendocrinology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing

DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2826.2011.02259.x
PMCID: PMC3314084
PMID: 22128866 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

Auteurs Bordeaux Neurocampus