From Signaling Molecules to Circuits and Behaviors: Cell-Type–Specific Adaptations to Psychostimulant Exposure in the Striatum
Biological Psychiatry. 2019-11-01; :
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Salery M(1), Trifilieff P(2), Caboche J(3), Vanhoutte P(4).
(1)Department of Neuroscience and Friedman Brain Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York.
(2)NutriNeuro, Unité Mixte de Recherche (UMR) 1286, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Bordeaux Institut Polytechnique, University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.
(3)Neuroscience Paris Seine, Institut de Biologie Paris-Seine, Sorbonne Université, Faculty of Sciences, Paris, France; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR8246, Paris, France; Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, U1130, Paris France.
(4)Neuroscience Paris Seine, Institut de Biologie Paris-Seine, Sorbonne Université, Faculty of Sciences, Paris, France; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR8246, Paris, France; Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, U1130, Paris France.
Addiction is characterized by a compulsive pattern of drug seeking and consumption and a high risk of relapse after withdrawal that are thought to result from persistent adaptations within brain reward circuits. Drugs of abuse increase dopamine (DA) concentration in these brain areas, including the striatum, which shapes an abnormal memory trace of drug consumption that virtually highjacks reward processing. Long-term neuronal adaptations of gamma-aminobutyric acidergic striatal projection neurons (SPNs) evoked by drugs of abuse are critical for the development of addiction. These neurons form two mostly segregated populations, depending on the DA receptor they express and their output projections, constituting the so-called direct (D1 receptor) and indirect (D2 receptor) SPN pathways. Both SPN subtypes receive converging glutamate inputs from limbic and cortical regions, encoding contextual and emotional information, together with DA, which mediates reward prediction and incentive values. DA differentially modulates the efficacy of glutamate synapses onto direct and indirect SPN pathways by recruiting distinct striatal signaling pathways, epigenetic and genetic responses likely involved in the transition from casual drug use to addiction. Herein we focus on recent studies that have assessed psychostimulant-induced alterations in a cell-type-specific manner, from remodeling of input projections to the characterization of specific molecular events in each SPN subtype and their impact on long-lasting behavioral adaptations. We discuss recent evidence revealing the complex and concerted action of both SPN populations on drug-induced behavioral responses, as these studies can contribute to the design of future strategies to alleviate specific behavioral components of addiction.