Efficacy of a 2-month dietary supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids in dry eye induced by scopolamine in a rat model

Sabrina Viau, Marie-Annick Maire, Bruno Pasquis, Stéphane Grégoire, Niyazi Acar, Alain M. Bron, Lionel Bretillon, Catherine P. Creuzot-Garcher, Corinne Joffre
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2009-05-05; 247(8): 1039-1050
DOI: 10.1007/s00417-009-1080-z

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1. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2009 Aug;247(8):1039-50. doi:
10.1007/s00417-009-1080-z. Epub 2009 May 5.

Efficacy of a 2-month dietary supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids in
dry eye induced by scopolamine in a rat model.

Viau S(1), Maire MA, Pasquis B, Grégoire S, Acar N, Bron AM, Bretillon L,
Creuzot-Garcher CP, Joffre C.

Author information:
(1)INRA, UMR1129 FLAVIC, Eye and Nutrition Research Group, Dijon, 21000, France.

BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of dietary n-6 and
n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in dry eye in a rat model.
METHODS: Female Lewis rats were fed with diets containing (1) gamma-linolenic
acid (GLA), (2) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), or (3)
GLA + EPA + DHA, for 2 months before the induction of dry eye using a continuous
delivery of scopolamine and during scopolamine treatment. Two, 10 and 28 days
after dry-eye induction, clinical signs of corneal dryness were evaluated in vivo
using fluorescein staining. MHC II expression and mucin rMuc5AC production in the
conjunctival epithelium were evaluated by immunostaining. Lipids and
prostaglandins (PGs) E(1) and E(2) were analysed from the exorbital lacrimal
gland (LG).
RESULTS: Dietary PUFAs minimised the occurrence of corneal keratitis 28 days
after induction of dry eye. The decrease in mucin production observed on the
conjunctival epithelium was partially prevented by EPA + DHA supplementation
after 2 days of scopolamine treatment, as well as by GLA and GLA + EPA + DHA
diets after 10 days of treatment. The overexpression of MHC II in the
conjunctival epithelium caused by dry eye induction was significantly reduced
only with the GLA + EPA + DHA diet after 28 days of treatment. Dietary PUFAs were
incorporated into phospholipids of the exorbital LG. Induction of dry eye was
associated with a significant increase in PGE(1) and PGE(2) levels in the
exorbital LG, which was inhibited by dietary EPA + DHA at 10 days (for PGE(2))
and 28 days (for PGE(1)).
CONCLUSIONS: Dietary GLA, EPA and DHA significantly interfered with lipid
homeostasis in the exorbital LG and partially prevented the course of dry eye. In
particular, our results demonstrate the efficacy of the combination of n-6 and
n-3 PUFAs.

DOI: 10.1007/s00417-009-1080-z
PMID: 19415319 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

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