Developmental gene control of brainstem function: views from the embryo
Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology. 2004-02-01; 84(2-3): 89-106
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1. Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2004 Feb-Apr;84(2-3):89-106.
Developmental gene control of brainstem function: views from the embryo.
Borday C(1), Wrobel L, Fortin G, Champagnat J, Thaëron-Antôno C, Thoby-Brisson M.
(1)UPR 2216 Neurobiologie Génétique et Intégrative, Institut de Neurobiologie
Alfred Fessard, CNRS, 1, av de la Terrasse, Gif-sur-Yvette 91198, France.
The respiratory rhythm is generated within the hindbrain reticular formation,
rostrally in the vicinity of the facial nucleus and caudally within the
vagal/glossopharyngeal domain. This is probably one of the best models to
understand how genes have been selected and conserved to control adaptive
behaviour in vertebrates. The para-facial region is well understood with respect
to the transcription factors that underlie antero-posterior specification of
neural progenitors in the embryo. Hox paralogs and Hox-regulating genes kreisler
and Krox-20 govern transient formation of developmental compartments, the
rhombomeres, in which rhythmic neuronal networks develop. Hox are master genes
selecting and coordinating the developmental fate of reticular and motor neurons
thereby specifying patterns of motor activities operating throughout life.
Neuronal function and development are also tightly linked in the
vagal/glossopharyngeal domain. At this level, bdnf acts as a neurotrophin of
peripheral chemoafferent neural populations and as a neuromodulator of the
central rhythmogenic respiratory circuits. A general view is now emerging on the
role of developmental transcription and trophic factors allowing the coordinated
integration of different neuronal types to produce, and eventually refine,
respiratory rhythmic pattern in a use-dependent manner.
PMID: 14769431 [Indexed for MEDLINE]