Cytokines in the Brain and Neuroinflammation: We Didn’t Starve the Fire!
Pharmaceuticals. 2022-01-25; 15(2): 140
In spite of the brain-protecting tissues of the skull, meninges, and blood-brain barrier, some forms of injury to or infection of the CNS can give rise to cerebral cytokine production and action and result in drastic changes in brain function and behavior. Interestingly, peripheral infection-induced systemic inflammation can also be accompanied by increased cerebral cytokine production. Furthermore, it has been recently proposed that some forms of psychological stress may have similar CNS effects. Different conditions of cerebral cytokine production and action will be reviewed here against the background of neuroinflammation. Within this context, it is important to both deepen our understanding along already taken paths as well as to explore new ways in which neural functioning can be modified by cytokines. This, in turn, should enable us to put forward different modes of cerebral cytokine production and action in relation to distinct forms of neuroinflammation.