Cooperation between hippocampal somatostatin receptor subtypes 4 and 2: functional relevance in interactive memory systems.
Hippocampus. 2009-01-01; : NA-NA
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The hippocampal somatostatin (sst) receptor subtype 4 (sst(4)) modulates memory formation by diminishing hippocampus-based spatial function while enhancing striatum-dependent behaviors. sst(4)-mediated regulations on neuronal activity in the hippocampus appear to depend on both competitive and cooperative interactions with sst receptor subtype 2 (sst(2)). Here, we investigated whether interactions with sst(2) receptors are required for sst(4)-mediated effects on hippocampus-dependent spatial memory and striatum-dependent cued memory in a Competition was assessed in mice by intrahippocampal injections of the sst(4) agonist L-803,087 alone or combined with sst(2) agonists (L-779,976 or octreotide). Effects of L-803,087 were also tested in sst(2) knockout mice to assess for receptor cooperation. Finally, sst(2a) and sst(4) localizations within hippocampal subregions were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and expression levels of sst(2a) and sst(2b) were quantified by real-time qPCR. Hippocampal injections of L-803,087 impaired spatial memory but enhanced cued memory. The latter effect was lost not only in sst(2) knockout mice but also in the presence of sst(2) agonists, whereas the former effect remained unaffected by sst(2) agonists or gene deletion. Octreotide and L-779,976 did not yield memory effects but reduced swim velocity throughout the acquisition trials suggesting that stimulation of sst(2) affected motivation and/or anxiety. sst(2a) and sst(4) were respectively detected in the dentate gyrus (DG) and the CA1 subfield suggesting that their functional interactions are not mediated by direct receptor coupling. Hippocampus sst(2a) expression was 36-fold higher than sst(2b). Possible neural mechanisms and functional significances for interaction between memory systems in relationship with stress-induced changes in hippocampal functions are discussed.