A Systematic Review of Sleep–Wake Disorder Diagnostic Criteria Reliability Studies
Biomedicines. 2022-07-06; 10(7): 1616
The aim of this article is to provide a systematic review of reliability studies of the sleep–wake disorder diagnostic criteria of the international classifications used in sleep medicine. Electronic databases (ubMed (1946–2021) and Web of Science (—2021)) were searched up to December 2021 for studies computing the Cohen’s kappa coefficient of diagnostic criteria for the main sleep–wake disorder categories described in the principal classifications. Cohen’s kappa coefficients were extracted for each main sleep–wake disorder category, for each classification subtype, and for the different types of methods used to test the degree of agreement about a diagnosis. The database search identified 383 studies. Fifteen studies were analyzed in this systematic review. Insomnia disorder (10/15) and parasomnia disorder (7/15) diagnostic criteria were the most studied. The reliability of all sleep–wake disorders presented a Cohen’s kappa with substantial agreement (Cohen’s kappa mean = 0.66). The two main reliability methods identified were “test–retest reliability” (11/15), principally used for International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD), and “joint interrater reliability” (4/15), principally used for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) subtype diagnostic criteria, in particularl, the DSM-5. The implications in terms of the design of the methods used to test the degree of agreement about a diagnosis in sleep medicine are discussed.