A Holistic View of the Goto-Kakizaki Rat Immune System: Decreased Circulating Immune Markers in Non- Obese Type 2 Diabetes
Front. Immunol.. 2022-05-23; 13:
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Type-2 diabetes is a complex disorder that is now considered to have an immune component, with functional impairments in many immune cell types. Type-2 diabetes is often accompanied by comorbid obesity, which is associated with low grade inflammation. However,the immune status in Type-2 diabetes independent of obesity remains unclear. Goto-Kakizaki rats are a non-obese Type-2 diabetes model. The limited evidence available suggests that Goto-Kakizaki rats have a pro-inflammatory immune profile in pancreatic islets. Here we present a detailed overview of the adult Goto-Kakizaki rat immune system. Three converging lines of evidence: fewer pro-inflammatory cells, lower levels of circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines, and a clear downregulation of pro-inflammatory signalling in liver, muscle and adipose tissues indicate a limited pro-inflammatory baseline immune profile outside the pancreas. As Type-2 diabetes is frequently associated with obesity and adipocyte-released inflammatory mediators, the pro-inflammatory milieu seems not due to Type-2 diabetes per se; although this overall reduction of immune markers suggests marked immune dysfunction in Goto-Kakizaki rats.